Bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) describes a spectrum of lower urinary symptoms (LUTS) accompanied by faecal elimination issues that manifest primarily by constipation and/or encopressis. This is an all too common childhood complaint and contributes to up to 40% of pediatric urology consults. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to avoid secondary co-morbidities but also to avoid adverse effects on the child’s psychosocial well being.
This 2017 article by Dos Santos et al discusses clinical presentation, diagnostic approach and indications for behavioural, pharmacological and surgical treatment of BBD in children based on thorough literature review. Its goal is to provide recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of BBD in children.